The choice of types of materials used in car exteriors depends on several factors. The safety, weight, cost, recyclability and life cycle of the material are considered before it is selected. The following are the materials used in car exteriors.
Steel is the most common material used in car bodies due to its chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. It is easy to manufacture and also durable. Modern steel is more light, stiff and robust making it a top choice. Currently, high-strength, low-alloy steels are being used due to their effectiveness. The main reason for using steel in car exteriors is its ability to absorb impact energy during crashes.
Aluminum is a very light material and therefore using it car bodies reduces the weight of the car. It also has low density and high impact energy absorption. It is resistant to corrosion and has good strength. The main disadvantage of aluminum is its cost and price instability.
Magnesium is commonly used in automotive engineering because it’s a lighter material. The main advantage of its usability is its fast solidification, durability, and better manufacturability. Despite having the physical/mechanical disadvantage that requires advanced design to be applied in automotive, the lower tensile, creep, and fatigue strength enhances the suitability of this material. Consequently, the hardness and modulus of magnesium alloys are much lower while the thermal expansion has a higher coefficient.
Advance composite material
A composite material is made up of reinforced fiber that is significant in the automotive industry. Perhaps it acts as weigh saver due to low density. The design employed is ensured that it optimizes the material usage by providing fiber that withstands the stress.
The lighter characteristic feature of these materials makes it efficient in shaping and rust-proofing. The production cost of small quantity cost is arbitrary low. Thus, glass fiber is mostly used in manufacturing sports cars. The type of materials used in car exteriors should be safe, durable and affordable.